A Vane Pump is a particular type of positive displacement pump. Its principle of operation is to use the back and forth movement of rectangle shaped vanes inside slots to move fluids. They are sometimes also referred to as sliding vane pumps.
While vane pumps can handle moderate viscosity liquids, they excel at handling low viscosity liquids such as LP gas (propane), ammonia, solvents, alcohol, fuel oils, gasoline, and refrigerants.
Vane pumps have no internal metal-to-metal contact and self-compensate for wear, enabling them to maintain peak performance on these non-lubricating liquids. Vane pumps are available in a number of vane configurations including sliding vane (left), flexible vane, swinging vane, rolling vane, and external vane. Vane pumps are noted for their dry priming, ease of maintenance, and good suction characteristics over the life of the pump.
Vanes Pressurize The Fluid
A slotted rotor is eccentrically supported in a cycloidal cam. The rotor is located close to the wall of the cam so a crescent-shaped cavity is formed. The rotor is sealed into the cam by two sideplates. Vanes or blades fit within the slots of the impeller. As the rotor rotates and fluid enters the pump, centrifugal force, hydraulic pressure, and/or pushrods push the vanes to the walls of the housing. The tight seal among the vanes, rotor, cam, and sideplate is the key to the good suction characteristics common to the vane pumping principle.
The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber through holes in the cam. Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes, rotor, cam, and sideplate.
As the rotor continues around, the vanes sweep the fluid to the opposite side of the crescent where it is squeezed through discharge holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of the crescent (small red arrow on the side of the pump). Fluid then exits the discharge port.