A pump is a device which moves fluids by mechanical action, from one place to the other. It is, essentially, the earliest form of machine, dating back to ancient Egypt.
The shaduf is the first device used for lifting water in several civilisations and thus the earliest form of pump.
Since pumps have been around for such a long time, it is no surprise that there are a seemingly endless variety of sizes and types used in multiple applications across industries.
Classification Of Pumps
Pumps are divided into 2 major categories: Dynamic and Positive Displacement (aka Displacement).
Following is some of the pumps under both categories (it is impossible to list all):
- Centrifugal pumps
- Vertical centrifugal pumps
- Horizontal centrifugal pumps
- Submersible pumps
- Fire hydrant systems
- Diaphragm pumps
- Gear pumps
- Peristaltic Pumps
- Lobe pumps
- Piston Pumps
How It Works
An increase in the fluid pressure from the pump inlet to its outlet is created when the pump is in operation. This pressure difference drives the fluid through the system or plant.
Fire Hydrant Systems
Positive Displacement Pumps
There are 2 main types of diaphragm pumps: Air-operated and Mechanical.
As the name suggested, air-operated diaphragm pumps (aka AOD pumps or AODD pumps) are powered solely by air making them suitable for dangerous and tough environments. They are also used for chemical transfer, de-watering underground coal mines, food manufacturing or where the liquid being pumped has a high solids content or high viscosity.
Gear pumps transfer fluid by gears coming in and out of mesh to create a non-pulsating pumping action. They are able to pump at high pressures and excel at pumping high viscosity liquids efficiently.
Internal and external gear pumps are the two basic types of gear pumps. The main differences between the two types of gear pumps are the placement of the gears and where the fluid is trapped.
Peristaltic pumps creates a steady flow for dosing and blending and is able to pump a variety of fluids, ranging from toothpaste to all sorts of chemicals. They are widely used in water treatment, chemical processing and food processing industries.
Lobe pumps offer superb sanitary qualities, high efficiency, reliability, corrosion resistance, and good clean-in-place and sterilise-in-place (CIP/SIP) characteristics. Thus they are very popular in F&B and pharmaceutical industries.
A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high-pressure seal reciprocates with the piston. Piston pumps can be used in multiple applications and can be used to transfer paint, chocolate, pastry, etc.